The International Law of the World Ocean Protection from Oil Pollution

  • Ksenia B. Valiullina
Keywords: World Ocean, Preservation, Oil and Petroleum Products, Oil Pollution, Cooperation, Protection and Conservation


The role of the World Ocean in the global lifesupport
system can’t be overestimated. Covering 2/3
of the surface of our planet, it is the largest supplier
of Earth's oxygen and the carbon dioxide sink. It
participates in climate formation, accumulating heat
in summer and giving up it in winter; it ensures a
continuous supply of food, consumed by the world's
population. Nevertheless, over many decades, the
seas and oceans are rapidly becoming contaminated
from all possible sources. Practically, there are no
reservoirs in the world, the water in which is suitable
for drinking. They would have ceased to exist long
ago without their daily replenishment with
wastewater, poisoned with all sorts of substances and
synthetic compounds. The sources of pollution of the
marine environment are very diverse and numerous.
One of the largest environmental problems of the
states today is the pollution of the environment,
including the marine pollution with oil and
petroleum products. This occurs as due to the
violation of mining and processing technology, as a
result of accidents of ships, carrying oil in bulk, and
in the process of their daily activities. Obviously, the
importance of oil in the modern economy is very
high, as its use largely determines the degree of
economic development of any state. Most of it is used to produce all kinds of fuel (gasoline, diesel,
ship fuel, liquefied gas, aviation fuel, heating oil). In
addition, oil is used to create synthetic materials, in
the production of electricity and heat. At the same
time, it should be noted, that the use of oil and
petroleum products, practically at all stages, from
extraction to processing, involves the generation of a
large amount of wastes. As a result of emissions or
incineration, they release to the land, water or the
atmosphere, and cause irreparable damage to the
environment and human health. According to the
experts, millions of tons of oil products annually
enter the waters of the World Ocean. Due to this,
some of the territories of seas and oceans are almost
constantly covered with a dense film, oxygen-tight
and destructive for living organisms and marine
inhabitants. The article assesses the environmental
situation in the world, with regard to the protection
of the World Ocean from oil pollution. The main
sources of oil and petroleum products, entering the
seas and oceans were defined; and the need for the
states to cooperate in ensuring the universal
environmental security, through the compliance with
convention provisions, was established in the article.